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(超详)初中英语知识点归纳汇总
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本文摘要:因资料太大,图片没法传输,所以需要完整版请关注私信相识详情初中英语知识归纳总结(打印版)第一课时 名 词一、概述1、名词的属性:表现人或事物的名称抽象观点的词叫名词。2、名词分普通名词和专有名词。普通名词是表现某一类人或事物,或某种物体或抽象观点的名称。 如:teacher, desks, plates, milk, box等,专有名词表现某一特定的人、事物、地方团体、党派、国家机关、语言、节日等专用的名称。

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因资料太大,图片没法传输,所以需要完整版请关注私信相识详情初中英语知识归纳总结(打印版)第一课时 名 词一、概述1、名词的属性:表现人或事物的名称抽象观点的词叫名词。2、名词分普通名词和专有名词。普通名词是表现某一类人或事物,或某种物体或抽象观点的名称。

如:teacher, desks, plates, milk, box等,专有名词表现某一特定的人、事物、地方团体、党派、国家机关、语言、节日等专用的名称。(运用)如:China, Chinese, Saturday, June, Green, Beijing, Olympic等。(专有名词的第一个字母要大写)二、可数名词与不行数名词1、可数名词是指表现人或事物,可以用数来计量的名词,有单复数之分。

如:glass-----glasses; book---- books2、不行数名词是指所表现的事物不能用数来计量。如:paper, rice, water , milk, tea等。

3、有些名词在特定情况下由不行数变为可数名词。Light travels faster than sound; (light:光线,不行数)The lights are on. (light:灯,可数)4、不行数名词的量的表现不行数名词一般无法用数来盘算,前面不能用a或an或数词来表现数量,它的量往往借助于容器来表现。如:a glass of milk ------ four glasses of milk a piece of paper ------ two pieces of paper a bag of rice ------ three bags of rice三、可数名词的复数形式(识记、运用)1、可数名词在应用时有单复数之分,单数变复数有规则变化和不规则变化两种。规则变化情 况变化形式例词一般情况加-sgirls; books;以s,x,ch,sh末端的名词加-esclasses; boxes; watches;brushes以辅音字母加y末端的名词变y为i, 加escity---cities; baby---babies以f或fe末端的名词变f,fe为v, 加esknife---knives; leaf---leaves以O末端的名词potatoes; tomatoes;photos; kilos; bamboos; radios2、少数名词有不规则的变化形式policeman---policemen; man---men; woman---women;tooth---teeth; foot---feet; sheep---sheep; deer---deer;Japanese--- Japanese; Chinese --- Chinese; fish --- fish四、名词所有格(运用)名词的所有格是表现所有关系的形式,它也有组成上的变化。

1、单数名词变所有格,只需在词尾加 ’ s;2、复数名词的词尾已有s,只需加 ’ 即可;3、复数名词的词尾若没有 s ,则应加’ s ;4、如果表现某人或物为两人所共有,则在第二小我私家后面加’ s ; 如:Da Mao and Xiao Mao’s room 如果不是两人共有,则在每小我私家后面都加 ’ s; 如:Li Lei’s and Tom’s mother5、名词所有格结构通常用于表现有生命的名词,或表现时间、距离、所在等,而表现无生命名词的所有关系则用“of”表现。如: the windows of house the picture of the family of 结构也能用于有生命名词的所有格。a friend of my sister’s a book of his第二课时 冠 词(一)一、概述冠词是一种虚词,在句子中不重读,自己不能独立使用。在汉语中没有这个词类。

在学习冠词时,要注意这种加在名词前资助说明名词所指的人或事物的词表现数量“一”时,与数词的区别;其表现“数量”的意义没有“one”强,这是学习中注意区此外。二、冠词的界说冠词是置于名词之前,说明名词所表现的人或事物的一种虚词,它不能脱离名词而单独存在。

冠词有两种:一种是定冠词(the Definite Article);the一种是不定冠词(the Indefinite Article). a an三、不定冠词的用法a用于辅音音素起首的单词前,an用于元音音素起首的单词前。1、当第一次提到某人或某物时,用a或an起先容作用,如:What is this? It is a bus.Who is she? She is a doctor.2、表现泛指一类人或物A snake is a cold-blood animal.A plane is a machine that can fly.3、表现某一类人或事物的任何一个。如:She is a teacher; That is an apple.There is an elephant in the zoo.4、可用于某些词组,是该词组不行缺少的组成部门。如:a long time a little a fewat a time have a try take a chance5、表现“每一个”的意思。

如:three times a day four yuan a dozen6、可用于抽象名词之前,使抽象名词详细化。如:I am quite at a loss;The little child is a joy to his parents.7、用于物质名词之前,使物质名词普通化。

如:He drew out a tin of pineapple.They made a fire to get warm.注意:1、不定冠词an用在以元音(不是字母,而是发音)起首的名词或其他以元音起首的词之前,不定冠词a用在以辅音起首的名词或其他以辅音起首的词之前。2、u和h有时在单词中发元音,有时却读作辅音或不发音。如:I have been waiting for an hour.He is an honest young fellow.A hammer is a useful fool.3、英语中有些字母,如f h l m n s x。由于它前头第一个音是元音,所以在单独使用或作缩略词的第一个字母时,应使用“an”,如:There is an “n” in the word “no”.An MP means a member of parliament.第三课时 冠 词(二)一、定冠词的用法定冠词the 有this, that, these, those等意思,用于单数或复数名词前。

主要用来特指,使一个或几个事物区别于所有其他同名的事物。1、指前文已经提到过的人或事物。

如:I wrote an article. The article was about physics.2、指说话人都知道的人或事物。如:Please close the door before you leave.Let’s go to the classroom.3、名词有定语修饰时,须用定冠词the,表现特指意义。

如:The book on the desk is his.The teacher who talked with you is her mother.4、用于世界上唯一无二的事物前。如:the sun the moon the earth the sky the world5、用在序数词前面表现顺序。如:I live on the fourth floor.My mother is always the first one to come and the last one to leave.6、与其他词连用,组成牢固词组。

如:on the left in the north in the front of7、在表现乐器名称的名词之前用定冠词。如:the piano the violin8、用在形容词或副词的最高级前面。如:This was the most interesting voyage we had ever had.He is the tallest of us.9、用在形容词前面,表现复数意义的某一类人或事物。

如:the rich the poor the young the livingthe new the right the true the beautiful10、在表现江河、山脉、海湾、海峡、沙漠等专用名词之前加定冠词。如:the Changjiang River the Nilethe Alps the Himalayas11、用在年月、朝代、时代名词前。如:the Qin Dynasty the Ming Dynastyin the 50’s the spring period12、和表现姓氏名词的复数形式连用,表现某姓氏一家人或匹俦二人。如:the Lis the Martins二、不用冠词的情况1、除一些特殊情况外,专用名词以及抽象名词和物质名词前不加冠词。

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如:Man is mortal.Miss Smith came in power at last.2、当名词前已有this, that, my, his, any, every, some, no, those, these等词修饰时或有所有格修饰时,不必加冠词。如:She is my sister.This article you had written is very wonderful.3、在交通工具、学科名称等名词前不加冠词。

如:by plane by boat Chinese Physics4、在节日、沐日、星期、月份、季节等名词前不加冠词。如:National Day May DayAutumn January5、在一日三餐、体育类等名词前不加冠词。

如:He prefers milk and egg for breakfast.He preferred to play football and I’d rather play tennis.6、在唯一的职务、头衔的名词前不加冠词。如:He is elected manager of our company.People elected him president of that country last year.7、在报纸标题、图像说明、文章题目、标志、广告前不加冠词。如:Worker’s MindNotes on the Study of Hong Lou Meng8、在一些牢固词组中不加冠词。

如:at home by mistake learn by heartat first at last at onceby sea day and night第四课时 代 词(一)一、概述代词是用来取代名词或名词短语的词。代词的分类:人称代词:表现“我”、“我们”、“你”“你们”、“他、她、它”、“他们”的词叫人称代词;物主代词:表现所有关系的代词,分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词;反身代词:表现行动反射到执行者自己或用来增强语气的代词;指示代词:表现能替代名词或替代形容词的词;不定代词:表现不指明替代任何特命名词的代词。疑问代词:表现替代人或物且含有疑问语气的代词。

二、人称代词第一人称第二人称第三人称单数复数单数复数单数复数主格Iweyouyouhe, she, itthey宾格meusyouyouhim, her,itthem人称代词在句中可作主语、宾语、表语。1、主格在句中作主语,宾格在句中作宾语。

She gave these books to you and me;You must look after them;2、当并列代词作主语时,I 放在最后。顺序为你,他,我You, he and I are going to spend the winter holidays in Beijing.三、物主代词物主代词包罗形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种,有人称和数不清变化形式。第一人称第二人称第三人称单数复数单数复数单数复数形容词性myouryouryourhis, her, itstheir名词性mineoursyoursyourshis, hers,itstheirs形容词性物主代词只能作定语修饰名词,如:my watch; your books ; their names;名词性物主代词在句中可单独作用,可作主语、宾语和表语,后面不跟名词,英语中说:“我的一位朋侪”,要用“a friend of mine”。有些结构中常用the 替代物主代词He had a cold in the head.(the意思是his)My mother took me by the arm. (the意思是her)四、反身代词单数myselfyourselfhimself; herself; itself复数ourselvesyourselvesthemselves反身代词在句中可以增强语气,用作宾语和同位语。

He himself has finished it .(作同位语)He has taught himself Russian for 5 years .(作宾语)I did it mysldf. (增强语气)某些牢固结构:by oneself; fo oneself; among themselvesThey made the machine all by themselves.He cooked a meal for himself.第五课时 代 词(二)一、指示代词指示代词有:this; that; these; thosethis, these 表现“这”、“这些”,是“近指”。that, those表现“那”、“那些”,是“远指”。

注意:在电话用语内里,用this取代自己,that取代对方。如:who’s that? This is Tom speaking二、不定代词英语中有以下不定代词:all, each, every, both, either, neither, one, none, little(a little), few(a few), many, much, other, another, some, any, no另有由some, any , no every组成的代词。

1)both, allboth 是指“两者都”,而all则是指“三者或三者以上都”,如: Both of us are right. All of you are good at playing basketball.但all 还可以组成牢固短语 all day, all this, all the time等2) either, neithereither 是指“两者之中任何一个……“属于部门否认,而neither则是“两者之中一个也不……“属全部否认Either of the books will do. Neither of the answers is right.而either还可泛起在否认句子里,可与neither举行句型转换。如:Tom hasn’t been to America, Jim hasn’t, either= Neither Tom nor Jim has been to America.而neither (nor) 也可用于表现“也不……”,组成“neither (nor) +助动词+主语”的句式。Kate isn’t a worker, neither is Meimei.3) little, a little, few, a fewlittle, a little修饰不行数名词; few , a few修饰可数名词;little, few表现否认,“险些没有”a little, a few表现肯定,相当于some, any.There is a little milk in the glass.There are few students in the classroom, they’re in the reading-room.4) every, eachevery, each都是强调每一个,every 作定语修饰名词。

如:The bus comes every five minutes.Each of them may come at a different time.5) some , any6) 由some, any, no, every组成的不定代词something, someone, somebody, somewhere, anything, anyone, anybody, anywhere, nothing, none, nobody, nowhere, everything,everyone, everybody, everywhere.三、疑问代词疑问代词用来组成疑问句,一共有五个:who, whom, whose, what, which.第六课时 数 词一、基数词基数词表现数量onetwothreefourfivesixseveneightnineteneleventwelvethirteenfourteenfifteensixteenseventeeneighteennineteentwentythirtyfortyfiftysixtyseventyeightyninetytwenty-onethirty-eightfifty-threea hundreda thousanda milliona billion注意:表现详细数目的hundren, thousand, million等均不用复数,百位数和十位数之间通常加连词and;十位数与个位数之间要加连字符。二、序数词firstsecondthirdfourthfifthsixthseventheighthninthtentheleventhtwelfththirteenthfourteenthfifteenthsixteenthseventeentheighteenthnineteenthtwentieththirtiethfortiethfiftiethsixtiethseventietheightiethninetiethhundredthtwenty-firstninety-nintya hundred and fifty-third序数词的缩写形式:由阿拉伯数字后加上序数词的最后两个字母。

first---1st second --- 2nd tenth --- 10th三、时间和年月日表现法1、时间均用基数词表现:1)顺读法,先说“点钟”,再说“分钟”,如: 2:15 two fifteen 6:20 six twenty2)逆读法30分钟以内:“分钟数+ past +钟点数”,如: 3:20 --- twenty past three 2:10 --- ten past two半小时用 half,15分钟用 a quarter : 2:15 --- a quarter past two 3:30 --- half past three30分钟以外要用:“分钟数+ to + 下一个钟点”,如: 4:35 --- twenty-five to five 2:55 --- five to three2)年月日表现法 年份读法;月日读法;年月日一起读法。四、分数的表现法当分数中表现分子的数只含个位数时一般接纳“分子(用基数词)+分母(用序数词)”表现。(分子大于1时,分母序数词用复数)如:one-third; two-thirds; three twenty-seconds五、数词与名词的搭配1)数词与名词连用时,它们的序次是“名词+基数词” Lesson 15; Room 1506 或者用“the + 序数词 + 名词” The Fifteenth Lesson the third floor2)数词与小时的搭配 two hours and a half three hours half an hour第七课时 形容词一、概述形容词修饰名词,说明人或事物或特征。

在句中可作定语、表语、宾语补足语。The beautiful girl is Tom’s sister.(充当定语)Three is nothing serious, is there?(充当定语,修饰不定代词的形容词及短语要放在不定代词之后)The shoes in the shop were not very expensive.(作表语)The old are looked after well.(有些形容词和定冠词the连用时,表现一类人或物,其谓语动词用复数形式)二、形容词比力级及最高级的形式1、绝大部门双音节形容词和单音节形容词的比力品级变化是规则变化。情 况变 化 形 式举 例一般情况在词尾直接加-er ; -estsmall - smaller - smallest以e末端的词在词尾加 –r ; - st ;large - larger - largest以辅音字母+y末端变y为i,加- er; -esthappy- happier- happiest以一个元音字母加一个辅音字母末端,而且是重读闭音节将该辅音字母双写,再加-er ; -estfat – fatter – fattestthin – thinner – thinnestbig – bigger – biggesthot – hotter - hottest2、部门双音节和多音节形容词比力级和最高级变化形式在多音节形容词前加more或mostbeautiful – more beautiful – most beautifuluseful – more useful – most useful3、不规则形容词比力级和最高级形式:good, well – better – best bad, ill – worse – worstmany, much – more – most little – less – leastfar – farther, further – farthest, furthest三、形容词的比力品级的用法1、当A=B时,则用as(副)…as(介,连)…,中间用形容词或副词的原级。

表现甲与乙在某方面一样 He is as tall as I (me)2、A≠B,则用not as(so)…as… 表现甲与乙在某方面纷歧样。He is not so tall as I = He is shorter than I =I’m taller than he The boy isn’t as careful as that one = This boy isn’t as careful than that one3、比力级+than 形式 This lesson is more difficult than that one She is fatter than Kate4、the+最高级+(in of)短语 Miss Zhou is one of the most popular in our class He is the oldest of the three of 常与名词复数或表现数量的词连用。表现“在…之中”这一。

in常与表现规模或场所的名词连用“在…规模之中”四、形容词比力级特殊用法1)more and more比力级连用表现“越来越……” In spring the weather gets warmer and warmer. He is getting busier and busier.2)The more … the more 越…就越… The larger the bus is , the more people it can carry. The farther away an object is from us, the smaller it looks.3)比力级形式表达最高级:比力级+than any other+名词单数;比力级+than the other+名词复数 He is clever than any other boy---- He is the clevest of all the boys---- He is clever than the other boys4、修饰比力级的副词有much, even , quite , a little, a lot等表现“得多”“甚至”,表现水平。第八课时 副 词一、概述副词是用来修饰动词、形容词或其他副词的词,表现行动的特征、状态的特征或某种性质的水平。二、副词的分类。


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